分类 Arch Linux 下的文章

systemd-analyze在ArchLinux上的应用

以下说明的是systemd-analyze的在分析系统启动性能的应用:

1. $ systemd-analyze > starttime.txt 会在~/starttime.txt中显示启动时间。譬如[SSD中]:

Startup finished in 1.894s (kernel) + 5.970s (userspace) = 7.864s

2.$ systemd-analyze plot > start_time.svg 会在~/start_time.svg中显示启动项以及各自所消耗的时间,并在.svg中得到显示

 

以下为man详解:

man systemd-analyze
SYSTEMD-ANALYZE(1)                                systemd-analyze                                SYSTEMD-ANALYZE(1)

NAME
       systemd-analyze - Analyze system boot-up performance

SYNOPSIS
       systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] [time]

       systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] blame

       systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] critical-chain [UNIT...]

       systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] plot [> file.svg]

       systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] dot [PATTERN...] [> file.dot]

       systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] dump

       systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] set-log-level [LEVEL]

       systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] verify [FILES...]

DESCRIPTION
       systemd-analyze may be used to determine system boot-up performance statistics and retrieve other state and
       tracing information from the system and service manager, and to verify the correctness of unit files.

       systemd-analyze time prints the time spent in the kernel before userspace has been reached, the time spent
       in the initial RAM disk (initrd) before normal system userspace has been reached, and the time normal system
       userspace took to initialize. Note that these measurements simply measure the time passed up to the point
       where all system services have been spawned, but not necessarily until they fully finished initialization or
       the disk is idle.

       systemd-analyze blame prints a list of all running units, ordered by the time they took to initialize. This
       information may be used to optimize boot-up times. Note that the output might be misleading as the
       initialization of one service might be slow simply because it waits for the initialization of another
       service to complete.

       systemd-analyze critical-chain [UNIT...]  prints a tree of the time-critical chain of units (for each of the
       specified UNITs or for the default target otherwise). The time after the unit is active or started is
       printed after the "@" character. The time the unit takes to start is printed after the "+" character. Note
       that the output might be misleading as the initialization of one service might depend on socket activation
       and because of the parallel execution of units.

       systemd-analyze plot prints an SVG graphic detailing which system services have been started at what time,
       highlighting the time they spent on initialization.

       systemd-analyze dot generates textual dependency graph description in dot format for further processing with
       the GraphViz dot(1) tool. Use a command line like systemd-analyze dot | dot -Tsvg > systemd.svg to generate
       a graphical dependency tree. Unless --order or --require is passed, the generated graph will show both
       ordering and requirement dependencies. Optional pattern globbing style specifications (e.g.  *.target) may
       be given at the end. A unit dependency is included in the graph if any of these patterns match either the
       origin or destination node.

       systemd-analyze dump outputs a (usually very long) human-readable serialization of the complete server
       state. Its format is subject to change without notice and should not be parsed by applications.

       systemd-analyze set-log-level LEVEL changes the current log level of the systemd daemon to LEVEL (accepts
       the same values as --log-level= described in systemd(1)).

       systemd-analyze verify will load unit files and print warnings if any errors are detected. Files specified
       on the command line will be loaded, but also any other units referenced by them. This command works by
       prepending the directories for all command line arguments at the beginning of the unit load path, which
       means that all units files found in those directories will be used in preference to the unit files found in
       the standard locations, even if not listed explicitly.

       If no command is passed, systemd-analyze time is implied.

OPTIONS
       The following options are understood:

       --user
           Operates on the user systemd instance.

       --system
           Operates on the system systemd instance. This is the implied default.

       --order, --require
           When used in conjunction with the dot command (see above), selects which dependencies are shown in the
           dependency graph. If --order is passed, only dependencies of type After= or Before= are shown. If
           --require is passed, only dependencies of type Requires=, RequiresOverridable=, Requisite=,
           RequisiteOverridable=, Wants= and Conflicts= are shown. If neither is passed, this shows dependencies of
           all these types.

       --from-pattern=, --to-pattern=
           When used in conjunction with the dot command (see above), this selects which relationships are shown in
           the dependency graph. Both options require a glob(7) pattern as an argument, which will be matched
           against the left-hand and the right-hand, respectively, nodes of a relationship.

           Each of these can be used more than once, in which case the unit name must match one of the values. When
           tests for both sides of the relation are present, a relation must pass both tests to be shown. When
           patterns are also specified as positional arguments, they must match at least one side of the relation.
           In other words, patterns specified with those two options will trim the list of edges matched by the
           positional arguments, if any are given, and fully determine the list of edges shown otherwise.

       --fuzz=timespan
           When used in conjunction with the critical-chain command (see above), also show units, which finished
           timespan earlier, than the latest unit in the same level. The unit of timespan is seconds unless
           specified with a different unit, e.g. "50ms".

       --no-man
           Do not invoke man to verify the existence of man pages listed in Documentation=.

       -H, --host=
           Execute the operation remotely. Specify a hostname, or a username and hostname separated by "@", to
           connect to. The hostname may optionally be suffixed by a container name, separated by ":", which
           connects directly to a specific container on the specified host. This will use SSH to talk to the remote
           machine manager instance. Container names may be enumerated with machinectl -H HOST.

       -M, --machine=
           Execute operation on a local container. Specify a container name to connect to.

       -h, --help
           Print a short help text and exit.

       --version
           Print a short version string and exit.

       --no-pager
           Do not pipe output into a pager.

EXIT STATUS
       On success, 0 is returned, a non-zero failure code otherwise.

EXAMPLES FOR DOT
       Example 1. Plots all dependencies of any unit whose name starts with "avahi-daemon"

           $ systemd-analyze dot 'avahi-daemon.*' | dot -Tsvg > avahi.svg
                 $ eog avahi.svg

       Example 2. Plots the dependencies between all known target units

           systemd-analyze dot --to-pattern='*.target' --from-pattern='*.target' | dot -Tsvg > targets.svg
           $ eog targets.svg

EXAMPLES FOR VERIFY
       The following errors are currently detected:

       ·   unknown sections and directives,

       ·   missing dependencies which are required to start the given unit,

       ·   man pages listed in Documentation= which are not found in the system,

       ·   commands listed in ExecStart= and similar which are not found in the system or not executable.

       Example 3. Misspelt directives

           $ cat ./user.slice
           [Unit]
           WhatIsThis=11
           Documentation=man:nosuchfile(1)
           Requires=different.service

           [Service]
           Desription=x

           $ systemd-analyze verify ./user.slice
           [./user.slice:9] Unknown lvalue 'WhatIsThis' in section 'Unit'
           [./user.slice:13] Unknown section 'Service'. Ignoring.
           Error: org.freedesktop.systemd1.LoadFailed:
              Unit different.service failed to load:
              No such file or directory.
           Failed to create user.slice/start: Invalid argument
           user.slice: man nosuchfile(1) command failed with code 16

       Example 4. Missing service units

           $ tail ./a.socket ./b.socket
           ==> ./a.socket <==
           [Socket]
           ListenStream=100

           ==> ./b.socket <==
           [Socket]
           ListenStream=100
           Accept=yes

           $ systemd-analyze verify ./a.socket ./b.socket
           Service a.service not loaded, a.socket cannot be started.
           Service [email protected] not loaded, b.socket cannot be started.

ENVIRONMENT
       $SYSTEMD_PAGER
           Pager to use when --no-pager is not given; overrides $PAGER. Setting this to an empty string or the
           value "cat" is equivalent to passing --no-pager.

       $SYSTEMD_LESS
           Override the default options passed to less ("FRSXMK").

SEE ALSO
       systemd(1), systemctl(1)

GTK主题黑边问题

自从用了LXDE之后,大部分gtk应用[主要是gnome组件]全部自带大黑框特效。解决方法就是对你正在用的主题路径下的个gtk-widget.css文件做如下修改:

这里我是修改 /usr/share/themes/Numix/gtk-3.0/gtk-widgets.css

把其中的.window-frame和.window-frame:backdrop<span style="font-size: 13px; line-height: 19.5px; white-space: pre-wrap; background-color: #fefef2;">两系列换成以下文本即可:</span>

.window-frame, .window-frame:backdrop {
    box-shadow: 0 0 0 black; /* removes shadow completely */
    border-style: none;
    margin: 1; /* this retains the ability to resize with the mouse, if 1px is too narrow, set some higher values */
    border-radius: 0;
}

ArchLinux的备份以及恢复方法

过程概述:

直接硬盘数据对拷速度快,挂载新旧硬盘,然后使用 cp -a 将就数据拷贝到新硬盘。接着chroot后,重新生成fstab,再使用grub-install以及grub-mkconfig生成新的引导文件。

步骤一:挂载与复制数据

  1. 将SSD放到原来的HDD硬盘位,原HDD硬盘使用光驱位硬盘架放到光驱位,装好后开机,引导进U盘中的ArchLinux LiveCD

  2. 输入命令 lsblk 查看分区信息,举例来说:SSD为128G sda1,HDD为320G sdb3(若SSD为sda,则使用 fdisk 新建分区并mkfs 将分区格式化为指定的文件系统,推荐 Btrfs)

  3. 使用 mkdir /newmkdir /old ,创建两个文件夹,使用 mount /dev/sda1 /newmount /dev/sdb3 将SSD挂在到 new 文件夹,将 HDD 挂载到 old 文件夹,使用 ls /old 查看 old 文件列表,防止挂载错

  4. 使用 cp -a /old/* /new 将原分区数据全部拷贝到SSD

  5. 稍等几分钟等待数据拷贝完成

步骤二:新fstab以及Grub

  1. 可以使用 vi /etc/fstab 手写 fstab ,或者使用 genfstab 自动生成 fstab ,命令如下 genfstab -U -p /new >> /new/etc/fstab 或者 genfstab -U /new /new/etc/fstab ,再检查 vi /mnt/etc/fstab 查看是否正确

  2. 进入chroot: arch-root /new

  3. 安装 bootloader并生成新的引导: grub-install --target=i386-pc --recheck /dev/sda 再 grub-mkconfig -o /boot/grub/grub.cfg

步骤三:重启

  1. 离开 chroot 环境: exit

  2. 重启: reboot

步骤四:大功告成!

ArchLinux笔记本外接显示器的分辨率以及布局的设置

"xrandr" 是一款官方的 RandR Wikipedia:X Window System 扩展配置工具。它可以设置屏幕显示的大小、方向、镜像等。对多显示器的情况,也可使用 arandr 或 lxrandr 等图形前端作为替代。

我从Xfce4转到了LXDE桌面,由于是笔记本(1366×768)外接26寸显示器(1920×1080),导致两屏幕的布局有问题。

以下两图是LXDE的默认设置,左右排列的话是以上部分为对齐。但是我想要以下部分对齐,所以安装arander。

      

arander的GUI设置可以轻易的实现这个要求。

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